Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Chemical reactions involve the making and breaking of bonds. It is essential that we know what bonds are before we can understand any chemical reaction. To understand bonds, we will first describe several of their properties. The bond strength tells us how hard it is to break a bond. Bond lengths give us valuable structural information about the positions of the atomic nuclei. Bond dipoles inform us about the electron distribution around the two bonded atoms. From bond dipoles we may derive electronegativity data useful for predicting the bond dipoles of bonds that may have never been made before. From these properties of bonds we will see that there are two fundamental types of bonds--covalent and ionic. Covalent bonding represents a situation of about equal sharing of the electrons between nuclei in the bond. Covalent bonds are formed between atoms of approximately equal electronegativity. Because each atom has near equal pull for the electrons in the bond, the electrons are not completely transferred from one atom to another. When the difference in electronegativity between the two atoms in a bond is large, the more electronegative atom can strip an electron off of the less electronegative one to form a negatively charged anion and a positively charged cation. The two ions are held together in an ionic bond because the oppositely charged ions attract each other as described by Coulomb's Law. Ionic compounds, when in the solid state, can be described as ionic lattices whose shapes are dictated by the need to place oppositely charged ions close to each other and similarly charged ions as far apart as possible. Though there is some structural diversity in ionic compounds, covalent compounds present us with a world of structural possibilities. From simple linear molecules like H2 to complex chains of atoms like butane (CH3CH2CH2CH3), covalent molecules can take on many shapes. To help decide which shape a polyatomic molecule might prefer we will use Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion theory (VSEPR). VSEPR states that electrons like to stay as far away from one another as possible to provide the lowest energy (i.e. most stable) structure for any bonding arrangement. In this way, VSEPR is a powerful tool for predicting the geometries of covalent molecules. The development of quantum mechanics in the 1920's and 1930's has revolutionized our understanding of the chemical bond. It has allowed chemists to advance from the simple picture that covalent and ionic bonding affords to a more complex model based on molecular orbital theory. Chemical Bonding :: essays research papers fc Chemical reactions involve the making and breaking of bonds. It is essential that we know what bonds are before we can understand any chemical reaction. To understand bonds, we will first describe several of their properties. The bond strength tells us how hard it is to break a bond. Bond lengths give us valuable structural information about the positions of the atomic nuclei. Bond dipoles inform us about the electron distribution around the two bonded atoms. From bond dipoles we may derive electronegativity data useful for predicting the bond dipoles of bonds that may have never been made before. From these properties of bonds we will see that there are two fundamental types of bonds--covalent and ionic. Covalent bonding represents a situation of about equal sharing of the electrons between nuclei in the bond. Covalent bonds are formed between atoms of approximately equal electronegativity. Because each atom has near equal pull for the electrons in the bond, the electrons are not completely transferred from one atom to another. When the difference in electronegativity between the two atoms in a bond is large, the more electronegative atom can strip an electron off of the less electronegative one to form a negatively charged anion and a positively charged cation. The two ions are held together in an ionic bond because the oppositely charged ions attract each other as described by Coulomb's Law. Ionic compounds, when in the solid state, can be described as ionic lattices whose shapes are dictated by the need to place oppositely charged ions close to each other and similarly charged ions as far apart as possible. Though there is some structural diversity in ionic compounds, covalent compounds present us with a world of structural possibilities. From simple linear molecules like H2 to complex chains of atoms like butane (CH3CH2CH2CH3), covalent molecules can take on many shapes. To help decide which shape a polyatomic molecule might prefer we will use Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion theory (VSEPR). VSEPR states that electrons like to stay as far away from one another as possible to provide the lowest energy (i.e. most stable) structure for any bonding arrangement. In this way, VSEPR is a powerful tool for predicting the geometries of covalent molecules. The development of quantum mechanics in the 1920's and 1930's has revolutionized our understanding of the chemical bond. It has allowed chemists to advance from the simple picture that covalent and ionic bonding affords to a more complex model based on molecular orbital theory.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Leadership Styles and Theories Erica Hunter Faculty: Sherry Knight NUR 415 Leadership and Management in Nursing March 18th, 2013 The student name indicated on this title page signifies that the author has read and understands the IWU Honesty Policy as outlined in the Student Handbook and IWU Catalog. Affixing this statement to the title page certifies that no cheating or dishonest use of information has occurred in completing this assignment. The work submitted is original work specific for this course.If cheating and/or plagiarism are discovered in this paper, it is acknowledged that the university policy will be followed, and may result in dismissal of the student from Indiana Wesleyan University. Leadership Styles and Theories Leaders in healthcare and in business follow a leadership style to manage their employees. The Leadership styles vary from two factor theory, expectancy theory, and OB modification to transactional theory and transformational theory.The two factor theory is where the organization considers salary, status, and security to promote job satisfaction (Yoder-Wise, 2011, p. 10). Expectancy theory is where the organization believes an individual perceived needs influence their behavior thus affecting their work performance (Yoder-Wise, 2011, p. 10). OB modification is where the leader uses positive reinforcement to motivate followers to repeat constructive behaviors in the workplace (Yoder-Wise, 2011, p. 11).The two main theories I want to focus on are transactional and transformational theories. A transformational leader is one who promotes teamwork among the staff, encourages positive self-esteem, motivates staff to function at high levels of performance and empowers staff to become more involved in the development and implementation of policies and procedures (Atkinson Smith, 2011, p. 44-50). This leadership style is readily received by employees. This type of leadership was practiced when I worked in endoscopy at Miami Valley Hospital.The team leader Kandi encouraged the staff with positive affirmations. She would take the time to teach new policies and give an opportunity for the staff to ask questions about the change. Kandi followed up on quality issues and if an error was found she used it as an opportunity to learn for the employee in a non-punitive manner. Transactional leadership is when employees adopt the traditional view of the Ã¢â¬Å"bossÃ¢â¬ image (Yoder-Wise, 2011, p. 39). The superior makes the decisions with little or no input from the subordinates.This leadership style makes employees feel powerless and worthless to help with change. Hopefully this leadership style is used less within organizations. Leadership Styles and Theories References Atkinson Smith, M. (2011, September). Are you a transformational leader. Magnetic Pull, 42(9), 44-50. http://dx. doi. org/10. 1097/01. NUMA. 0000403279. 04379. 6a Yoder-Wise, P. (2011). Core Concepts. In P. Yoder-Wise (Ed. ), Leading and Managing in Nursing (5th ed. , pp. 5-6). St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Mosby.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Propaganda is everywhere any human looks. It is the base of almost every government. But, seeing as how other governments are worse than the American government, itÃ¢â¬â¢s worse in other areas of the world. The role of propaganda in a totalitarian government is very important, especially when compared to a democratic type of government, mostly because democracies donÃ¢â¬â¢t usually want to control every aspect of life. Information or ideas that are spread by an organized group or government to influence peoples opinions, especially by not giving all the facts or by secretly emphasizing only one way of looking at the facts is what propaganda is (Ã¢â¬Å"Cambridge DictionariesÃ¢â¬ ). So basically, itÃ¢â¬â¢s the government making people believe in what they wantÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦14). The Nazis hid their people from the truth. Hitler told his men to just not tell the German people the truth at all. He just wanted them to know what they needed to know and leave out all of the rest. Democratic countries, however, are completely opposite. Democratic countries must present at least some of the truth in their propaganda. Any free person will eventually discover the truth, so democratic countries donÃ¢â¬â¢t really think too much of their propaganda. When propaganda has been uncovered, and the people discover that it is distorted or full of lies, it becomes ineffective (Ã¢â¬Å"Democratic vs. Enemy PropagandaÃ¢â¬ para. 5). The people completely understood democracy. The people used to act together, almost as if they were like an assembly line. The people used to be in charge of the legitimate authority, and political power. Nowadays, the only thing the people control is limited. They have the right to pick and choose who is of the political authority. Then, that political authority is given to by a person who the people who have elected to lead their country (Ã¢â¬Å"DemocracyÃ¢â¬ para.1). However, people have the right to know all of the truth of any situation, so democratic propaganda has to abide by that rule, no matter how ugly the truth may be. The truth is not only in the rules of democracy, but is also a slap of reality for a policy that isShow MoreRelatedOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 Pagesportion of humanity in ways that would have been unthinkable a century ago. Jean QuataertÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution to gender shifts in the twentieth century focuses more narrowly on the variable fortunes of human rights causes in an era marred by phases of totalitarian oppression and genocidal excesses that were far more severe and widely distributed throughout societies across the globe than at any other time in human history. She traces the ways in which humanitarian impulsesÃ¢â¬âwhich were often linked to pacifist
Friday, December 27, 2019
Manga Shakespeare is able to properly convey ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s original story and language through its use of images, original text, and speech bubbles. The mangaÃ¢â¬â¢s use of different speech bubbles conveys the intended language and emotions of Othello, as if it is being preformed rather than if it is simply read, thus putting forth a product that accurately depicts Othello in a similar fashion to which the play originally was intended to be viewed. One of the ways ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s language is conveyed in the manga is through the use of normal speech bubbles. Throughout the manga speech bubbles are the main way that ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s language is presented. These speech bubbles are simply round text blocks, which may or may not contain a line pointing in the direction of the character that is speaking. The speech bubbles are quite effective in conveying ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s language, as they are easy to read and clearly indicate which character is speaking. In compariso n, the text makes it clear who is speaking by the name of a character being mentioned before their lines. This is also an effective way of ensuring the audience is aware of what is being said, although based on the reader one method may be preferable to the other. While reading the original text some people find it difficult to focus on whom the speaker is when some of the characters lines are very long and may go on for a page or more. Within the manga this is rectified by the speech bubbles being short and concise, thusShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Shakespeare s Othello 1131 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAn Analysis of Othello by Shakespeare Shakespeare is known for his use of recurring themes throughout his work, including love, death and betrayal. These themes are present in his work of Othello. However, the most fundamental issue is jealousy. The lives of the characthers in Othello are ruined by jealousy from the beginning to the end of the play. The telling of the story is carried out by passion, jealousy, and death. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Othello reveals devastating tragic inevitability, stunning psychologicalRead MoreAnalysis Of Shakespeare s Othello 1567 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWOMENÃ¢â¬â¢S ROLE IN SOCIETY: DISECTING THE MISOGONY IN SHAKESPEAREÃ¢â¬â¢S OTHELLO Judging Othello from a self-proclaimed feminist Audre LordeÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective allows the reader to see the double standards women faced in the Elizabethan society. Today our society assigns gender roles to children from birth. From the baby dolls needing care and EZ Bake Oven toys, little girls are encouraged at an early onset to lead domesticated lives. Boys on the other hand, are given cars and action figures that can take rough-housingRead MoreAnalysis Of Shakespeare s Othello 913 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshave to explain themselves and their actions to their possessions.One of the examples of women s role is given by Shakespeare In act 3 of Othello,when IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s wife Emilia says, Ã¢â¬Å"I know nothing but to please his fantasyÃ¢â¬ (3.3.299). From the beginning of the play women s role is clearly shown as being a commodity , a thing of ownership. Even when Iago in hopes of causing trouble for Othello wakes up Brabantio he refers to Desdemona as a possession rather than a person, Ã¢â¬ËZounds, sir, youRead MoreAnalysis Of Shakespeare s Othello 1447 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHaimon and Iago This is a story of two men, from two very different walks of life. Their names Ã¢â¬â Iago and Haimon. Iago being the older of the two, a seasoned soldier and right hand man to general Othello of Venice, was known for his Ã¢â¬Å"honestyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"wisdomÃ¢â¬ . The younger, Prince Haimon son of King Creon, wise beyond his years, highly compassionate, and active. One man used his mind for positive purposes, and the other for negative. The differences in these characters and their actions, show thatRead MoreAnalysis Of Othello s Othello By William Shakespeare Essay2117 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages Racist Ideology As Seen In Othello As a writer, William Shakespeare possessed an uncanny ability to address topics that were, for the most part, unnoticed in society. Every one of his characters feels realistic because they are so complex and based on psychological motivations. When ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Othello was first written, there was undoubtedly a complicated relationship between white English citizens and so called Ã¢â¬Å"foreignersÃ¢â¬ . However, societyÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to understand or accept different culturesRead MoreAnalysis Of Shakespeare s Othello, By William Shakespeare1040 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWhen pairs of texts are considered together, their universal themes and ideas lead to greater understanding, appreciation and insight of both the old and the new. The texts Othello, William Shakespeare (1600) and Othello, Geoffrey Sax (2001), ring true for this statement. Despite the differing contexts and ages, the universal themes of racism and betrayal bring new meaning to each of the texts. The primary meaning from the juxtaposition of the two is that of the human condition, and how the problemsRead MoreAnalysis of William ShakespeareÃ ´s Othello737 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe Tragedy of Othello, a play by William Shakespeare, was written in the early 1600Ã¢â¬â¢s. If Othello was written in a different time, 21st century America, the view of people of different genders and races would differ, women would be held to a more equal social standard and the issue of Othello being black, wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be as prominent when he marries Desdemona. This play was written in a time where it was essential to follow cultural values. During this time women were expected to respect all maleRead MoreAnalysis Of William Shakespeare s Othello889 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessaw as issues in their respective cultures and societies. William Shakespeare in one of his most famous plays Othello lies out a problem which he thought was pertinent enough for him to deal with directly, that is the problem of race. Othello was a Moor, a man of African descent who was put in a hostile situation by being put in Venice a primarily white society. The role of race in Othello and the kind of language used by Shakespeare throughout the play point towards OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s race and how othersRead MoreAnalysis Of William Shakespeare s Othello1603 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMAJOR WORKS REVIEW GENERAL 1. Title - Othello 2. Author - William Shakespeare 3. Date of Original Publication - 1622 4. Novel Type - Play STRUCTURE 1. Point of View - Iago 2. Relationship to meaning: The reader sees things the way that Iago sees them. This gives the reader an inside look on IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s evil plans, which also leads to a better understanding of all of the other characters, but Iago especially. The reader sees how Iago manipulates so many of the characters, like Roderigo and MontanoRead MoreAnalysis Of William Shakespeare s Othello 992 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesElleana Morrison Professor Connor Shakespeare 340 Midterm Paper, Prompt 5 7 April 2016 A Black Iago Othello is, in the opinion of many, one of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s most prolific plays. It broke the mold by assigning the lead protagonist role to a black man, and the central love story is of that between this older black man and a young white woman. Othello has perhaps the most wicked- and likable- villain in all of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s work. It has love- both fulfilled and unrequited, family conflict, rebelling
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Failure to launch - According to Hala Al-Nasser reporter at USA TODAY, the biggest impact that make people stay home longer is because of lower income and less education. In the movie failure to launch, Tripp has a great job yet he stays at his parents house and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t think about moving out. According to Riegels Interpretation of Development and The Family Life Cycle, there are reasons why Tripp refused to leave the nest. U.S. census data for the year 2011 showed that almost 20% of Americans between the ages of 25 to 34 were living with their parents. For those aged 18 to 24, the number is 59% of men and 50% of women. TrippÃ¢â¬â¢s environmental dimension is the best he could ever desire, as he lives in the same house ever since heÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The only thing he does have however is a job yet he only uses it to his advantage and not for a future relationship. As TrippÃ¢â¬â¢s parents start to give him chores and let him do everything independently which eventually doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t last very long, he decides to let go of Paula by breaking up with her but that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t work very well, because he finds out about Paula and his parents plan. When Tripp finally accepts his parents decision for wanting him to move out and he finally falls in love with Paula (after being tied to a chair), Tripp is ready to commit to a real relationship and not have too much worries about his previous fiance death. After so much struggle to make Tripp launch out of the house, he is finally ready to be emotionally independent and develop a new intimate relationship. Bibliography: Failure to Launch - Writings - Frederica.com. (n.d.). Writings - Frederica.com. Retrieved April 7, 2013, from http://www.frederica.com/writings/failure-to-launch.html Holloway, M. (2003). Individuals and families in a diverse society. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson. Nasser, H. E., TODAY, U. (n.d.). Bad economic times reunite families: Grown kids are living at home Ã¢â¬â USATODAY.com. USA TODAY: Latest World and US News - USATODAY.com. Retrieved April 7, 2013, fromShow MoreRelatedI Disagree With Kenneth WaltzÃ¢â¬â¢S Positionthat Nuclear Proliferation1229 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesnot take the risk of second-strike retaliation and mass destruction. He disregards the risk of accidental nuclear crises. Waltz also claims that the threat of US invasion without UN endorsement acts as an impediment to international control. In this essay, I will detail these key points in WaltzÃ¢â¬â¢s argument and the weaknesses I see in his argument, beginning with those of Waltz. Waltz claims that the idea of a small nation wishing to acquire nuclear weapons is Ã¢â¬Å"as odd as it is pervasiveÃ¢â¬ 1. His examplesRead MoreNanda Homes Rapid Success of the Clocky in America then Decreased Revenue854 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesNanda Home achieving rapid success in first few years through the launch of Clocky in America has been experiencing decrease of revenue. To sustain success in previous years, Nanda Home needs to be aware of the failures on branding its company and products. The purpose of this essay is to evaluate the failure on sustaining ClockyÃ¢â¬â¢s appeal, and to analyze the market situation of Turkey to make recommendation to brand Nanda Home and Clocky successfully based on the branding goal of awareness and functionRead MoreThe Empty Nest : A Feeling Of Grief And Loneliness1579 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesincreasing globally, moreover the demographic prognosis show the continuity of these trends, according to recent studies. This behaviorÃ¢â¬â¢s incremen t has been a modern phenomenon - so-called Ã¢â¬Ëboomerang kidÃ¢â¬â¢ (a young adult who returns after leaving) or Ã¢â¬Ëfailure to launch childrenÃ¢â¬â¢ (the ones who never leaved) - and has fast growing in the last decades. Parents, educators and researches debate whether living with parents into adulthood might affect the capability to slide into real ripe world with all new challengesRead MoreThe Eminent Scientist And Nobel Prize Winner Sir Peter Medawar1117 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesloyalty and perceived superior products, e.g. Apple, were to launch a new phone in three monthsÃ¢â¬â¢ time. Overwhelming probability would suggest this Ã¢â¬Å"eventÃ¢â¬ would be a success, with massively impactful publicity and sales. Thus the marketing partners associated with Apple, whether it was PR, media, creative social etc. would highlight in their case history how they were the key contributors to this success. The fate of a successful launch is not reliant solely on the latest PR campaign, or the latestRead MoreGrievous Problems have Arisen for Nanda Homes, Creator of Innovative New Products681 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesproducts but some grievous problems arising recently. We are market researchers writing this recommendation essay aiming at presenting the analysis of observations regarding of the failure to continue the attractiveness of its products. By using branding goals including awareness and image to measure its marketing strategies, this summary will focus on the possible reasons for its failure and provide suitable recommendations for Nanda Home to effectively brand the company and Clocky in ArgentinaÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreStalin s Success And Failures Of Collectivization987 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesStalinÃ¢â¬â¢s launch for collectivization marked the beginning of what was often described as a third Russian Revolution (Davies, 1980). The threat of war in 1927 alongside a grain cri sis in 1928 influenced StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s collectivization ideas to turn into actions. This essay will discuss StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s drive for this launch. It will cover both economic and political reasons as well as the effects it had on peasants and the overall Soviet state. The successes and failures of collectivization will be compared inRead MoreThe Policies Of Communication Strategies Google + Released Caused A Protest By Users1286 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Users would not switch to new social media with many functions they already used on the old one; in addition, their social circles have completed on previous one. Competitors About competitors, Facebook responded new system and functions to the launch of Google+ (Reed, 2011). With regard to the similarity, Facebook has strived for developing new services, like Game Trick, which can compete with other rivals (Parr, 2011); in addition to buy other social networking service, especially cross-platformRead MoreEvaluating The New Product Launch Essay1320 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe same quality results as the Q7 that successfully identifies if bacteria is present, at a fraction of the cost. In order to have a successful new product launch, risks and management strategies must be analyzed. This essay will identify and plan to minimize risks, as well as establish a management team to strategize a proper product launch. Nutrition and Health Diagnostics is in a risk-reward situation when the initial meetings were held to develop a new product. The growth of the company plateauedRead MoreThe And Evaluation Of Loyalty Card1710 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescard in business. This essay will firstly discuss what is a loyalty card ? The loyalty card is defined that a plastic card given by a business to the customer which has earned a reward to them and data collected for business house. In 1982 the UKs biggest retailers named Sainsbury first launch loyalty card. In 1997 the chemist retail chain Boots were invested 30 million GBP in their loyalty programs which is 3rd largest in UK because of its success. Secondly the essay will discuss about the benefitsRead MoreProjects contribute to innovation and development process of organizations. They indeed are900 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesevent such as sales, promotions. In particular, a project personnel team, who are experts in specific function that regarding to project and then be grouped, plays an important role in planning, running and controlling the project. Therefore, this essay will discuss about why project personnel team is a critical resource of the project management. The component of successful project is Ã¢â¬Å"project managementÃ¢â¬ , known as an application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to assists project activities
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Business Investment in Interest Rate. Answer: Introduction Consumers confidence has already been undermined by the low level of government spending. The cut in government spending is a contractionary policy and thus not good for an economy like Australia that is struggling with the issue of low economic growth. The Australian RBAs cash rate has been lowered to a level that is too low; despite this reduction, the economic growth has been low. It is therefore not certain whether a further interest rate cut would have a significant positive impact on the economic growth. Generally, economists believe that low interest rate is a major promoter of economic growth. It promotes economic growth in that it encourages investors to invest more on businesses by discouraging them from saving. All the capital that the investors fail to save is invested. On the contrary, the impact of low interest rate on the Australian business investment has not been attractive. This paper will consider all the arguments posed by different economists and weigh the possib ility of business investment rising or remaining unchanged after a further drop in the cash rate. It will also determine how high level of business investment impacts the aggregate demand, the real GDP and Price level. The lower cash rate will definitely result in increased business investment if not accompanied by other economic issues. The discouraged investors will be attracted to invest by the low interest rate. Maguire (2017) noted that the acquisition of capital is dependent on the interest rate offered; businesses would find it to repay their loans when the rates are lower. According to Pettinger (2016), lower interest rate discourages savings since the returns gained from saving declines and thus consumers prefers spending over saving; part of this spending goes to investment. An interest rate of close to zero as is the case for Australia makes the interest income from savings to be close to zero; this may offset the positive effects of the reduction in interest rate because people such as savers who rely heavily on saving will have no income to make demand. However, this would make such savers to quit saving and withdraw their bank deposits and invest in risky investments such as stocks (M adura (2014). There is plenty of money supply in the economy whenever the interest rate is lower. This creates a need for the banks to lend more; they can only do this by in turn lowering their interest rate to make the loans more attractive such that the demand for the loan goes up (Duff, 2017). The low interest rate causes the loan borrowing costs to fall. Thus, Financing Manufacturing, operations and distribution of goods and services become cheaper. This in turn makes the price on goods and services to fall. Consumers therefore benefit from these low prices and their demand rises; a higher demand subsequently stimulates investment in that there is an expanded market for the produced goods. Households and investors take this chance to borrow loans to repay their debts; thus there is more funds available for investment. The initial interest rate level is r1 and the business investment at this interest rate level is BI1. A reduction in the interest rate from r1 to r2 results in the business investment rising from BI1 to BI2 (Madura, 2012). The lower cost of using capital increases the number of business opportunities that need to be funded. The argument here is that consumers and investors spending has already been discouraged; the discouragement has resulted from a reduction in money in the economy after the government reduced it spending. However, an expansionary monetary policy will have a similar impact to a high level of government spending. Thus a low interest rate will increase the money in the Australian economy and the consumer and investors confidence will be restored. Duff also noted that interest cycles are important for businesses. They time when the interest rate are lower to expand their businesses. Business expansion results in more people being employed and higher wages are offered, this stimulates the economys demand. Their increased spending will stimulate business investment. The low interest rate will also lead to a decline in the Australian exchange rate which will make its export more competitive and thus a need to increase production. Consumers will take the advantage of the low rate to invest in assets that would increase their wealth. According to Bagus (2015), lower interest rate makes some projects to be profitable that would otherwise have been unprofitable. The Impact of a Rise in Business Investment on the Aggregate Demand Assuming that the reduction in interest rate has succeeded in raising the business investment, it is expected that this will subsequently influence the aggregate demand. An increase in business investment causes the aggregate demand to rise; this is because business investment is one of the components of the aggregate demand. The other components include; consumption, government spending and the net export. The equation for the aggregate demand is given by;where (X M) is the net export (Mankiw, 2016). Any addition of the right hand side components is reflected on the left hand side component. The increase in aggregate demand causes a right ward shift of the Aggregate demand curve (Sexton, 2015). To show the changes in the aggregate demand, a graph of the general price level against the real GDP is plotted as follows; LRAS is the long run aggregate supply curve whereas SRAS is the short run aggregate supply curve. The graph above shows the impact of a rise in business investment from a reduction in interest rate. The impacts rendered above is on three components; one is the demand curve, second is the real GDP, and finally is the price level. The analysis starts from an initial equilibrium level of aggregate demand and Supply. The aggregate demand curves are downward sloping, SRAS upward sloping and the LRAS is vertical. The vertical supply curve represents the maximum production level of the economy. The equilibrium level to start with is point E1 where the price level is P1, the real GDP level is Y1, the Aggregate demand curve is AD1 and the supply curve is SRAS. Increase investment shifts the AD1 curve to AD2. This rightward shift forms a new equilibrium E2. The new equilibrium E2 is at a higher level and is characterized by a higher real GDP level Y2 and a higher price level P2 (Khanacademy.or g, 2017). Thus, a lower interest rate will help in the recovery of the Australian economy. Conclusion It is not effective for the government to lower its spending when its economy is not performing well. The best time to consider lowering the spending is when the economy has picked and the aggregate demand is higher. The government should choose its policies wisely to avoid hurting the economy. Lower interest rate in Australia may will stimulate the business investment but not that much. Any increase in the business investment no matter how small will add to the aggregate demand and the real GDP will rise causing a rise in price. Bibliography Bagus, P. (2015). In defense of deflation. Cham: Springer. Duff, V. (2017). How Do Interest Rates Affect Businesses? [Online] Smallbusiness.chron.com. Available at: https://smallbusiness.chron.com/interest-rates-affect-businesses-67152.html [Accessed 11 Oct. 2017]. Gwartney, D., Stroup, R., Sobel, S., Macpherson, A. (2016). Macroeconomics: private and public choice. Boston, Massachusetts: Cengage Learning. Khanacademy.org (2017). Shifts in aggregate demand. [Online] Khan Academy. Available at: https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/macroeconomics/aggregate-supply-demand-topic/aggregate-supply-demand-tut/a/shifts-in-aggregate-demand-cnx [Accessed 12 Oct. 2017]. Madura, J. (2012). International financial management. Mason, OH, South-Western: Cengage Learning. Madura, J. (2014). Financial Markets and Institutions. 11th ed. Cengage Learning. Maguire, A. (2017). How Interest Rates Affect Your Small Business. [Online] QuickBooks. Available at: https://quickbooks.intuit.com/r/financial-management/how-do-interest-rates-affect-your-small-business/ [Accessed 12 Oct. 2017]. Mankiw, G. (2016). Brief principles of macroeconomics. Boston MA: Cengage learning. Pettinger, T. (2016). Effect of lower interest rates. [Online] Economicshelp.org. Available at: https://www.economicshelp.org/blog/3417/interest-rates/effect-of-lower-interest-rates/ [Accessed 11 Oct. 2017]. Sexton, R. (2015). Exploring Economics. 7th ed. Australia: Cengage Learning.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
The Molly Maguires developed as the active secret terrorist organization based on the idea of struggling with the capitalist mine owners. The representatives of the Molly Maguires had the Irish origin and followed Catholicism. The organization acted within the Pennsylvania coal region famous for its anthracite mines during the 1860s-1870s. Thus, the ethnic and religious principles and differences were accentuated.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Molly Maguires specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to the legend associated with the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s name, the Irish miners referred to the name of the Irish Catholic woman Molly Maguire who was rather persistent while opposing to the Irish and English Protestants because they intended to remove the woman from the house because of her faith (The Molly Maguires (1970), 1999). The Molly Maguires could work for Ã¢â¬Å"The Ancient Order of the HiberniansÃ¢â¬ , the influential secret organization. The Molly Maguires acted as the protectors of the minersÃ¢â¬â¢ rights, but the methods used were rather violent. There is no single idea about the ideology of the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s members or justification of their actions because they were oriented toward using terrorist techniques, murdering mine owners, organizing riots, and attacking police as the ways to act for the workersÃ¢â¬â¢ interests (The overthrow of the Molly Maguires, 2013). Thus, the activitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ purpose was to overcome discrimination against the Irish working class of miners. The organization depended on the developed structure and leadership of John Kehoe, the King of the Mollies (Boyer Morais, n.d.). To stop the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s activities, the U.S. police developed the plan to integrate James McParlan, a detective, into the organization. During the months, McParlan worked to prevent violent murders and crimes and to gather the evidences against the societyÃ¢â¬â¢ s members. The year of 1876 became the year of trials against the Molly Maguires. The activities of the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s members were discussed as violating all the ethical and legal norms, and to contribute to declaring the sentences quickly, the Irish juries were removed during the trials (Linder, 2010). The events associated with the Molly Maguires are discussed as evidences of discrimination against the Irish people and workers as the class, first signs terrorism, and development of trade unions. References Boyer, R., Morais, H. (n.d.). The Molly Maguires. Web.Advertising Looking for essay on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Linder, D. (2010). The Molly Maguires trials: An account. Web. The Molly Maguires (1970). (1999). Web. The overthrow of the Molly Maguires. (2013). Web. This essay on The Molly Maguires was written and submitted by user Sariah Z. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here. The Molly Maguires